By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers uncomplicated ideas and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up-to-date with learn subsidized through ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters overlaying basic engineering details, easy fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and logos, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were further to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the planet.
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Additional resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
In gas flow analysis, Equation (10) is often used, and Ugz is negligible. Equation (10) should be used when density variations occur. For liquid flows, Equation (11) is commonly used. Identical results are obtained with the three forms if the units are consistent and fluids are homogeneous. , variation in velocity across the pipe or duct is ignored, and local velocity v = average velocity V ). When v varies significantly across the cross section, the kinetic energy term in the Bernoulli constant B is expressed as DV 2/2, where the kinetic energy factor (D > 1) expresses the ratio of the true kinetic energy of the velocity profile to that of the average velocity.
The elbow meter uses the pressure difference inside and outside the bend as the metering signal (Murdock et al. 1964). Momentum analysis gives the flow rate as 2 R- 2g'h Qtheoretical = Sd --------- -----4 2D (41) where R is the radius of curvature of the bend. Again, a discharge coefficient Cd is needed; as in Figure 19, this drops off for lower Reynolds numbers (below 105). These devices are calibrated in pipes with fully developed velocity profiles, so they must be located far enough downstream of sections that modify the approach velocity.
The simplicity of Equation (13) should be noted; the total head at station 1 (pressure head plus velocity head plus elevation head) plus the head added by a pump (HM) minus the head lost through friction (HL) is the total head at station 2. 3 Laminar Flow Turbulence When real-fluid effects of viscosity or turbulence are included, the continuity relation in Equation (5) is not changed, but V must be evaluated from the integral of the velocity profile, using local velocities. In fluid flow past fixed boundaries, velocity at the boundary is zero, velocity gradients exist, and shear stresses are produced.
2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers