By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This guide covers the refrigeration gear and platforms for functions except human convenience. This publication contains info on cooling, freezing, and storing nutrients; commercial purposes of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. basically a reference for the working towards engineer, this quantity can also be necessary for an individual fascinated with cooling and garage of nutrients items. This version comprises new chapters. bankruptcy three, Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration platforms, describes the background of this "natural refrigerant" and why it's the topic of renewed curiosity at the present time. The bankruptcy includes dialogue and diagrams on CO2 refrigerant functions, approach layout, gear, defense, lubricants, commissioning, operation, and upkeep. bankruptcy 50, Terminology of Refrigeration, lists many of the universal phrases utilized in business refrigeration structures, fairly structures utilizing ammonia because the refrigerant.
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Additional resources for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition)
The compressor manufacturer must recommend the superheating factors to apply. The final suction gas temperature from suction line heating is calculated by iteration. Another concern is that more energy is required to compress refrigerant to a given condenser pressure as the suction gas gains more superheat. This can be seen by examining a pressure-enthalpy diagram for a given refrigerant such as R-22, which is shown in Figure 2 in Chapter 30 of the 2009 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. As suction superheat increases along the horizontal axis, the slopes of the constant entropy lines of compression decrease.
Considerations include ambient temperatures, heat leakage, fluctuating system pressures from compressor cycling, internal bypass of liquid to pump suction, friction heat, motor heat conduction, dynamic conditions, cycling of automatic evaporator liquid and suction stop valves, action of regulators, gas entrance with liquid, and loss of subcooling by pressure drop. Another factor to consider is the time lag caused by the heat capacity of pump suction, cavitation, and net positive suction pressure factors (Lorentzen 1963).
3 times more energy for pumping to the same height than the less-dense ammonia. Because pumping energy must be added to the system load, halocarbon circulating rates are usually lower than those for ammonia. Ammonia has a relatively high latent heat of vaporization, so for equal heat removal, much less ammonia mass must be circulated compared to halocarbons. Although halocarbons circulate at lower rates than ammonia, the wetting process in the evaporators is still efficient because ofthe liquid and vapor volume ratios.
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers