Abd al-Rahman III - download pdf or read online

By Maribel Fierro

ISBN-10: 1851683844

ISBN-13: 9781851683840

Абд ар-Рахман III — эмир с 912 года, халиф с 929 года из династии кордовских Омейядов. Восстановил полураспавшийся при его предшественниках Кордовский эмират. В 931 году взял Сеуту, в 932 году — Толедо. С 955 года заставил королей Леона и Наварры платить дань. Отвоевал у Фатимидов часть Магриба (Северная Африка). Имел баскские корни (басками были его мать и мать отца).Абдаррахман заботился о развитии культуры и об усилении политической мощи, покровительствуя развитию сельского хозяйства, ремесла, торговли, литературы и просвещения. Упорядочил финансы, поощрял строительство. При нем были созданы крупные памятники искусства в столице и в других городах. Кордова стала одним из самых прекрасных городов мира; в этом городе было около полумиллиона жителей. Правление Абдаррахмана III — апогей расцвета аль-Андалуса и кордовских Омейядов.

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048 14/12/2004 1:17 PM Page 32 32 ‘ABD AL-RAHMAN III genealogy can be interpreted as a forgery. On the contrary, what the Muwallad leaders appear to be doing, in the eyes of these historians, is imitating the political behavior of the Arab and Berber rebels of the time. In the administration, as well as in the army of the Umayyad emirs, the possibility of gaining positions of responsibility and recompense depended on one’s status as an Arab or a client, more particularly a client of the Umayyad family.

But al-Sumayl knew that the arrival of the Umayyad would endanger the independence of the tribal groups,a possibility that he expressed in saying that ‘Abd al-Rahman belonged to a clan of such importance that if any of its members urinated in the Iberian peninsula, all its tribal leaders would be drowned. So he refused to help. 048 14/12/2004 1:15 PM Page 20 20 ‘ABD AL-RAHMAN III The Umayyad clients, unable to secure the support of the Northern Arab faction (to which the Umayyads belonged), turned to the Yemenis.

In sum, the Muwallads rebelled for their right to share power and compete for economic and social rewards on equal terms with the Arabs and, in the case of converts, with the “old” Muslims. Where the converts first succeeded in fully assimilating themselves was in the religious offices. 048 14/12/2004 1:17 PM Page 33 THE COLLAPSE OF UMAYYAD POWER AND ITS RECOVERY 33 From the reign of the emir Muhammad (r. 852–86) to that of ‘Abd Allah (r. 888–912) (the latter being ‘Abd al-Rahman III’s grandfather), Toledo, Zaragoza, and Badajoz in the frontier regions were most of the time independent from Umayyad control.

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Abd al-Rahman III by Maribel Fierro

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